Characteristics, Types, and Steps of Experimental Research Methods

Characteristics, Types, and Steps of Experimental Research Methods

The experimental research method is a research that contains a quantitative approach. This method has its own characteristics in the presence of a control group. Certain studies can use experimental designs because the variables that can be selected and there are other variables that can affect the experimental process and can be tightly controlled. Just like other research, experimental research methods are also carried out by formulating problems and then selecting subjects and measurement instruments and so on.

Characteristics of Experimental Research

There are several characteristics of research with experimental methods, such as the following:


In this case a researcher will make one of the independent variables according to what the researcher wants. Meanwhile, other variables will be used as a comparison.


The next character is control. A researcher wants a variable that can be measured to experience similarities in accordance with what the researcher wants. This is done by adding another factor to the variable. Researchers can also remove other undesirable factors from these variables.


Another character is an observation in which a researcher will carry out activities to find out whether there is any influence from the manipulation of certain variables on other variables.

Types of Experimental Research Methods

According to the expert, this experimental research method is divided into two categories, namely:

Single Variable

In this type of single variable design, the study only involves an independent variable. The design of this study includes several things, including the following outlines.

Pre-Experimental Designs (non-designs)

The design of this experimental research method can be said to be not a real experiment. Because there are still other variables that have an influence on the formation of the dependent or dependent variable. The pre-experimental form itself consists of three categories, namely one-shot case studies, one pre-post-test group, and intact-group comparison.

True Experimental Design

This research design can be said to be an actual experiment. This is because the researcher has a share in and control over all external variables that influence the experimental process so that the design quality is higher.

True-experimental design itself is divided into several types, namely the posstest-only control design, the pre-test-posttest control group design, and the Solomon four-group design.

Quasi Experimental Design

This experimental design is a form of development from true-experimental design. In quasi experimental design, there is a control group, it’s just that it cannot fully function in controlling external variables that affect the experimental process.

Factorial Design

In this category, research involves two or more independent variables. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of an experimental variable that can be generalized through all or specific levels of control variables.

Steps to Conduct Experimental Research Methods

There are several steps that must be taken in carrying out experimental research methods. Some of the steps referred to include the following:

  • The first step is to select and formulate the problem, including testing what treatment and also the impact the researcher wants to see or research.
  • Next is the subject who will be subjected to treatment and who will not be treated
  • Select a design for the research made
  • Developing a measurement instrument to collect data
  • Carry out research procedures and collect the required data
  • Analyze the data that has been collected
  • Make conclusions as a result of research