Definition and Functions of a Computer Power Supply (Types + How It Works)

Definition and Functions of a Computer Power Supply (Types + How It Works)

We may already know the series of Power Supply Unit (PSU) on a computer, which is a rectangular box inside the CPU and is above the power jack. What is a Power Supply? Understanding Computer Power Supply Power Supply is a computer hardware that plays a role in supplying voltage to each computer component that requires an electric current. In addition, the Power Supply can also change the electric current from AC to DC before passing it on to other computer hardware. Some components such as Motherboard, CD ROM, Hard Drive, Floppy Disk, and others are some examples of devices that receive electricity from the Power Supply.

As for the amount of electricity that can be flowed, it follows the needs of each hardware and is calculated based on Watts. Well, for the amount of Power Supply around 150 – 350 Watts. How does a power supply work?

How a Computer Power Supply Works

The working principle of the Power Supply is in charge of checking through an electric current test before it reaches the computer system. When successful and shows a positive signal (Power Good) it will be forwarded to the mainboard as a sign that the computer system is ready to operate. After all, the Power Supply will distribute the power according to the capacity required by each computer component. Apart from that all Power Supply also plays a role in keeping the electric current stable on every computer component. What is the function of the Power Supply?

Computer Power Supply Functions

The function of the Power Supply is to supply the electric current to each component contained in the computer. In addition, the main function of the computer’s Power Supply is to change the Alternating Current (AC) voltage to Direct Current (DC) before it is distributed to all computer components. Therefore, if the Power Supply does not work properly it can cause the DC voltage to become unstable which results in damage to other components such as hard drives and so on. At first glance we have discussed what are the uses of a power supply on a computer, now we will discuss the types of computer power supply circuits. What are the types of Power Supply?

Types of Computer Power Supplies

In general, there are two types of power supplies based on their functions or uses, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages.

  • Power Supply AT

The first power supply that was often used for ancient computer or PC models, usually this PSU was found on Pentium II and III computers made in 1997. Well, for current computer models this Power Supply is no longer used. As for the characteristics of the AT Power Supply you can see below.

Power Supplay AT characteristics

  • Has Power below 250 Watts.
  • Manual Power (On / Off) button.
  • 8-12 Output terminals connected to the motherboard.

In addition, the AT Power Supply has 2 power connectors P8 and P9 which are connected to the motherboard with a black cable.

  • ATX Power Supply

The latest type of Power Supplay than before which has the ability to be more efficient in processing incoming electric current with a better design. This ATX power supply is often used on the latest computers, where its use is quite practical because it supports the operational system through software. Users can turn on and turn off the computer without the need to press the Power button on the PSU again.

  • ATX Power Supply Features
  • Requires more power.
  • The Power (On / Off) button has been integrated into the system so when the computer shuts down the PSU also shuts down.
  • Output terminals numbered 20-24 which are connected to the motherboard.
  • There is an additional SATA Power connector.

Some of the differences in the AT and ATX Power Supply above are quite significant, even though the main function of the Power Supply is still the same. Next, we will discuss the parts of the Power Supply and their uses.

Power Supply Components and Their Functions

In the Power Supply device, there are several supporting components that have their respective roles and duties, along with an explanation.

  1. IC Regulator

IC regulator has a main function in keeping the voltage on the circuit of computer components stable.

  1. Resistors

Resistor functions to regulate the voltage on the Power Supply device both lowering and dividing it to limit the incoming electric current so that the motherboard components remain controlled.

  1. Diodes

The diode in the Power Supply device functions to drain the forward voltage current and inhibits the reverse voltage current.

  1. Transformer

Transformers or transformers function to transfer electrical power to two or more electrical circuits through the electromagnetic induction process.

  1. Filters

The filter functions to equalize the current signal that comes out of the Rectifier. This component is composed of electrolytic capacitors.

Actually there are many other supporting components that can support the main performance or function of the computer power supply. Another interesting article about the definition and function of a computer processor and how it works in full. Apart from that, in general, the Power Supply is divided into two types based on the design, namely: Internal Power Supply is a Power Supply that has been arranged and connected to the Motherboard or becomes a unit in the device. For example, on the TV and Amplifier and DVD Player.

External Power Supply is a Power Supply which is composed separately from the Motherboard of the device. For example, on cellphone and laptop chargers. From the review of the meaning of Power Supply and its function, we can draw the conclusion that this PSU has a vital role in maintaining the stability of the electric current voltage. A complete discussion of the meaning and function as well as how it works to the types of Power Supply Units (PSUs) can add insight into getting to know more about computer or PC hardware.